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Category: Medicine & Treatment

Acarbose: it’s Uses: Side effects: and How to take?

Acarbose is used as an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that slows the action of specific digestive enzymes that metabolize food into sugars. This slows down carbohydrates digestion and keeps your blood sugar from rising high after you eat.

Acarbose is a mild Anti-Hyperglycaemic and is used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. It can be used in combination with other diabetic medicines. It is used as an adjuvant to diet.

What is Acarbose?

Acarbose is an approved medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults as an adjunct to diet and exercise, depending on the patient’s health condition.
Login to see daily dose of Acarbose:

Common Brand Names of Acarbose:

  1. Percose
  2. Glucar
  3. Diabose
  4. Asucrose
  5. Rebose
  6. Prandase 
Acarbose: Its Uses: Side effects: and How to take
Acarbose: Its Uses: Side effects: and How to take?

What are the Uses of Acarbose?

Acarbose is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is generally used as a combination therapy with other medicines, diet, and exercise. Usually administered by mouth in an oral dosage form of a tablet. Your doctor or physician may start treatment with an initial dose of 25 mg gradually increasing the dose to maintain the effectiveness of medicine ( Maintainance dose is up to 50 -100mg ) maximum dose of Acarbose is 100mg.

Administration of Acarbose:

Acarbose should be administered orally three times daily with the first bite of each meal.
Dose: The amount of medicine that should be taken depends on.

  1. Patient’s weight
  2. Age Factor
  3. Allergic reaction
  4. Health conditions
  5. Other prescribed medicines. And many more.

Acarbose Dosage form & How to Take?

Dosage forms are type or variety in which medicine can be provided to patients considering the best possible treatment.

Dosage forms can be Tablet, Pill or capsule, suspension or syrup, aerosol or inhaler, liquid injection, pure powder, or solid crystal.

Acarbose is majorly used in the form of tablets. This is the usual dosage recommended in most common treatment cases. Please remember that every patient and their case is different, so the dosage can be different based on the disease, route of administration, patient’s age, and medical history.

Mechanism of action:

Acarbose acts as a competitive, reversible inhibitor of pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolase.
Acarbose by inhibiting this enzyme delays digestion of carbohydrates, Acarbose slows glucose absorption, resulting in a reduction of blood sugar levels from rising very high after you eat.

Absorption

Acarbose gets absorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It has a low systemic bioavailability which is less than 2%. It gets absorbed as the active drug, with 35% as metabolites).

Metabolization

Acarbose is metabolized in the gastrointestinal (GI) I tract by intestinal bacteria and digestive enzymes.

Excretion

The excretion of Acarbose is facilitated by kidneys, and 51% of an oral dose gets excreted in feces.

What are the common side effects of Acarbose?

Common side effects may include:

  1. stomach discomfort.
  2. stomach gas & bloating.
  3. mild diarrhea
  4. mild skin rash or itching.

Drug-Drug Interactions

  1. Acarbose may decrease the bioavailability of digoxin and valproic acid.
  2. Acarbose may increase hypoglycemic risk when combined with other anti-diabetic agents that cause hypoglycemia.
  3. Other Digestive enzymes, including amylase, lipase, and protease, may decrease the effectiveness of acarbose.
  4. Therapy requires monitoring with other agents that affect blood glucose concentrations.

Contraindications

Acarbose use is contraindicated in patients with:
  1. Known hypersensitivity.
  2. diabetic ketoacidosis.
  3. liver cirrhosis.
  4. inflammatory bowel disease.
  5. colonic ulceration.
  6. It also is contraindicated in patients with or at risk of intestinal obstruction.

Toxicity
Overdose with Acarbose may increase GI adverse effects. Patients should not have food or beverages that contain carbohydrates for 4 to 6 hours if toxicity occurs.

Reference:
1.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493214/
2.https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/444254#section=Therapeutic-Uses
Disclaimer:
All information and articles available on this site are for educational purposes only. The information given here should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any health-related problem or disease without expert advice. A qualified medical practitioner should always be consulted for medical examination and treatment.

Are you at risk for osteoporosis? Symptoms, Causes, and Test.

Are you are at the risk for osteoporosis? let’s find out

There are some common symptoms to identify the risk of osteoporosis: a simple fall or injury that can cause fractures, a decrease in height with age, bending of the back, Dowager’s hump syndrome, etc. all of these are symptoms of dreaded osteoporosis.

What is osteoporosis?

It means a condition that causes bones to become brittle and weak, so weak that slight stress on bones, like coughing, lifting, and bending over can cause a fracture.

Why does osteoporosis happen?

It happens due to the imbalance of some hormones that cause calcium from bone to release in blood in large quantities living bones porous and fragile over the years.
Reducing bone density by 30 to 40%

Bone making is a continuous process your bones are regularly remodeling discarding old and replacing it with a new one.

The strength of our bones can be measured by its weight and density.
Is maximum in our 30’s (bone mass)
Higher the bone mass, the less likely it is that we lose it during normal aging.

How does osteoporosis affect the nervous system?

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that increased the risk of fracture. Osteoporotic fractures cause increased inability and fatality in bones, it also suggests that osteoporosis may be a clinical indication of an underlying disbalance in CNS (central nervous system) causing disease process and affecting multiple systems.

The musculoskeletal system and the central nervous system, are primarily affected systems here, Vitamin D deficiency is a major contributor for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Its effects are propitiated by the development of the cerebrovascular disease, postural instability, muscle weakness, and bone fragility. Thus, osteoporotic fractures result from both bone and brain disease.

Nutritional needs for healthy bones.

  1. Calcium
  2. Protein
  3. Phosphorus
  4. Vitamin D

Who is at high risk for osteoporosis?

A recent study on women’s health initiative suggests that 40% of women are at risk of developing and osteoporotic fracture in their lifetime.
Most patient’s majority of which a woman is already osteoporotic because of its characteristics like no pain and no symptoms.
Osteoporosis progresses without one’s knowledge and is also described as a silent thief that robs calcium from our bones.
Osteoporosis can occur in anybody.

There are certain factors that increase the risk of osteoporosis.

  1. Family history of osteoporosis.
  2. An Inactive Lifestyle and Aging.
  3. Females are more susceptible than men due to thinner and lighter bones and lower bone mass.
  4. The decrease in estrogen levels in women after Menopause these hormones aids calcium absorption.
  5. Lower testosterone levels in men.
  6. Early Menopause either natural or surgical.
  7. Taking Anti Seizure or Epileptic medication for a prolonged period may cause side effects of bone thinning.
  8. Cushing’s syndrome leading to hormonal imbalance which can induce bone loss.
  9. Poor absorption of calcium in the stomach and intestine due to injury or surgeries.
  10. Low calcium intake and Vitamin D deficiency.
  11. Cigarette smoking reduces calcium absorption in the intestine.
  12. Excessive caffeine intake tea or coffee. As these are diuretics and increases urination and cause removal of nutrients and minerals, they also reduce calcium absorption.
  13. Pre-existing chronic medical conditions like renal or liver diseases, arthritis, hormonal abnormalities, hypo- hyperthyroidism leads to reduced calcium absorption.
  14. Parity in women(no. of children).

How to test for osteoporosis? (Diagnosis)

Testing Bone Mass:

(DEXA) Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.
Bone densitometry scan for the age of 35 or more only with consultation from your doctor.

Frequency:
Every 3 years for a healthy individual.
Every six months for the osteoporotic patient
Once annually for people with osteopenia

Prevention:

Preventive measures that should be done are as follows:
1. Maintain a steady diet with calcium and Vitamin D.
2. Exercise regularly
3. Weight control
4. The more you use your bone the more it becomes stronger to keep them healthy with an Active Lifestyle.

10 Important Things To Remember About Bronchitis

What is bronchitis?

Bronchitis is an inflammation (swelling, redness, pain) on the inner walls (lining) of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to your lungs. Bronchitis is often associated with the presence of cough (with mucus), which can be discolored depending on the type of bronchitis.
Bronchitis may be either acute or chronic.

Acute Bronchitis

Acute or short-term bronchitis is common and usually is caused by a viral or bacterial infection.  It is a type of respiratory infection symptomatically similar to cold or flu.

It could last for 10 to 14 days usually, causing symptoms to show for up to three weeks.

Smoking can negatively affect the recovery and treatment of acute bronchitis.

The first sign of acute bronchitis is the presence of dry cough with or without small amounts of white mucus may be coughed up if the bronchitis is viral. If the color of the mucus changes to green or yellow, it may be a sign of a bacterial infection.

Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a more serious and long term condition, with a constant irritation or inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes due to primary respiratory infection or exposure to smoke, dust, toxic gases, air pollution or other allergic substances in the air can cause allergic bronchitis, smoking is a cause too.

Chronic bronchitis can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the long term.

People at risk of chronic bronchitis are those with a family history of bronchitis, having asthma and allergies, smokers, and some others with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

There are some important things to remember about bronchitis so you can protect, prevent, and maintain your good health some of these are listed below:

Symptoms

In cases of acute bronchitis, one might have cold-like symptoms like:

  • Lack Of Energy.
  • Mild Headache Or Body Aches.
  • Sore Throat And Cough.
  • Fever And Chills.
acute vs chronic bronchitis: symptoms
Acute Vs Chronic bronchitis: symptoms

These symptoms usually improve in about a week; you may have a nagging cough that can last for a few days to many weeks.

Is bronchitis contagious?

Yes! Acute bronchitis can be contagious because it is caused by a virus or bacterial infection.

Chronic bronchitis is not likely to be contagious because it is a condition caused by long-term irritation of airways and allergies.

Chronic bronchitis is a productive cough that lasts at least three months, recurring bouts can occurring for at minimum of two consecutive years.

Sometimes an acute infection occurs on top of chronic bronchitis; in that case condition of the patient becomes worse and requires immediate medical attention.

Severe symptoms may need medical attention:

See your doctor if:

  • Cough lasts more than three weeks.
  • With wheezing or shortness of breath.
  • Coughing prevents you from sleep.
  • Fever higher than 38 Celsius.
  • Production of discolored mucus.
  • Produces blood in mucus.

Causes

Acute bronchitis:

Causative agents: Viruses (colds and flu/influenza), Bacteria.

Note:  Antibiotics mainly works in cases of bacterial infections as they don’t kill viruses, antibiotics aren’t useful in most cases of bronchitis (viral cases).

Chronic bronchitis:

Causative agents: Cigarette smoking, Air pollution, dust particles, and toxic gases in the environment, other allergic agents, genetic factors.

 

Risk Factors

Factors that increase risk of bronchitis include:
  • Low resistance: Older adults, infants, and young children have greater vulnerability to infection as they usually have lower resistance towards allergies and comparatively weaker immunity.
  • Low resistance towards bronchitis may also result from another acute illness, such as a cold, or from a chronic condition that compromises your immune system.
  • Exposure to irritants on the job: Risk of developing bronchitis is greater if you work in close contact with certain irritant chemicals like paints, plastic, etc. fumes and toxic gases around you become potent lung irritants, also grains, pollens or textiles. If you are exposed to pollutants and allergens.
  • Cigarette smoke: People who smoke (active smoker) or who live with a smoker (passive smoking) are at higher risk of both acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis.
  • Gastric reflux (GERD): Repeated Gastric reflux or heartburn can irritate your throat and damage it and can make you more prone to developing bronchitis.

Transmission

Acute bronchitis is contagious and can spread like a viral or bacterial infection;

Transmission is possible for another person through droplets when coughing.

A person should take the following precautions to reduce the transmission risk:

  • Cough into a tissue or use a mask while suffering from an infection.
  • Wash hands often
  • Take extra care around those with a weakened immune system like young children, older people, people with respiratory illness, etc.
When to see a doctor?
  1. A person should see a doctor if they have the following:
  2. A cough that lasts more than 3 weeks
  3. A fever that lasts 3 days or longer
  4. Difficulty Breathing, chest pains, or both
  5. Drowsiness or confusion
  6. Blood in their mucus
  7. Anyone with an existing lung or heart condition.
  8. Repeated bouts of infections/ worsening of symptoms

Prevention

Some prevention methods can be used to reduce the risk of acute bronchitis these includes:

  • Avoiding or quit smoking.
  • Washing the hands often to limit exposure to germs and bacteria.
  • Asking about vaccinations to protect from pneumonia and the flu
  • Find out more about the flu and how to prevent it.

It is not always possible to prevent chronic bronchitis, although several things can reduce the risk.

  • Avoiding respiratory irritants, such as smoke, dust, vapors, fumes, and air pollution.
  • Wearing a mask to cover the nose and mouth during high pollution levels.
  • Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk.
prevention methods for bronchitis.png

 

Complications

Although a single episode of acute bronchitis usually is not a cause for concern, it can lead to pneumonia in some people, but repeated bouts of bronchitis may mean that you have a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and thus need special medical attention.

Diagnosis

 A doctor will carry out a physical examination, using a stethoscope to listen for unusual sounds in the lungs.

They may also ask an individual about their symptoms:

  • Especially about cough and their medical history or any other pre-existing respiratory difficulties.
  • Any recent infection of cold or flu or allergic reaction.
  • Whether they smoke or not?
  • Exposure to passive smoking, dust, fumes, or air pollution, etc.
Diagnosis for bronchitis includes the following:
  • Checking the oxygen levels in the blood: This is done with a sensor that goes on your toe or finger.
  • Pulmonary function test or lung function test: done with the help of Spirometer which measures how much air your lungs can hold and how quickly you can get the air out of your lungs. To check on the functioning of the lungs.
  • Blood tests: measure the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in your blood and check for the presence of any infection.
  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can help in determining the condition of lungs in case of smokers, and to check for the presence of any other respiratory illness like pneumonia.
  • Sputum tests. Sputum is the thick mucus that forms due to an infection or inflammation of the throat. It can be tested to check if you have any infection that could be treated by antibiotics. Sputum can also be tested for signs of allergies.

Treatment

In the basic treatment of acute bronchitis, doctors may advise to:

  • Take rest
  • Drink fluids
  • Take over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. It will help relieve a cough and ease any accompanying pain. In time, acute bronchitis will go away, often without treatment.
  • The symptoms of chronic bronchitis may improve quickly for a while but they will come back and become worse again if there is exposure to triggers like smoke and other allergens.

Medications

Cough medicine: Coughing is useful for removing mucus from the bronchial tubes, but it can keep you up at night, medicine like cough suppressants or anti-tussive can help bring relief to the night time coughing and help you get some rest.

As most cases of bronchitis are caused by viral infections, antibiotics aren’t that effective. If Antibiotics are prescribed primarily for bacterial infections only.

Other medications that can bring relief to patients are:

  • Bronchodilators: Bronchodilators widen/open the blocked passage of bronchial tubes and help clear out mucus.
  • Mucolytics or expectorants: Mucolytics break thick obstructing mucus in the airways thinning of mucus makes it easier to cough up sputum and helps in easier breathing.
  • Oxygen therapy: Due to obstructive breathing or in case insufficient oxygen due to lung infection artificial oxygen supply can be used to treat the severe cases.
  • Anti-inflammatory and steroid drugs: These can help reduce inflammation (pain, swelling, redness) that can cause tissue damage.
  • Antibiotics: Most cases of bronchitis are caused by viral infections, where antibiotics aren’t that effective.

However, if you have a bacterial infection, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics. Taking antibiotics can prevent one from a secondary infection like an acute infection over the existing chronic one in some cases.

Do not take antibiotics unless you have bacteria as the cause of an illness. The reason for this concern is about antibiotic resistance, as the overuse of antibiotics makes infecting agents antibiotic-resistant making it harder to treat an infection in the long term.

  • Other medications. If you have respiratory allergies, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), your doctor may recommend an inhaler and other medications to reduce inflammation and open narrowed passages in your lungs.
Can chronic bronchitis be prevented?

Most cases of chronic bronchitis are caused due to smoking so the best way to prevent it is to not smoke. It’s also important to try to avoid lung irritants such as passive smoking, air pollution, chemical fumes, and dust.

What are the treatments for chronic bronchitis?

There is no cure for chronic bronchitis. However, treatments can help relieve symptoms, halt the progress of the disease, and improve your ability to do daily activities.

These include:

Lifestyle changes

  1. Quit smoking if you are a smoker.
  2. Avoiding passive smoking and places where you might breathe in other toxic lung irritants.
  3. Follow a specific diet plan and take nutritious food. It can prevent or decrease the probability of inviting other health problems.
  4. Keep yourself fit and active.

Also, inquire how much and what type of physical activity is best for you. Breathing exercise can strengthen your chest muscles that help you breathe and improve your overall wellness. Breathing exercises can be really useful for you.

Emergency services

If you have chronic bronchitis, keeping your emergency solutions ready and within reach is very important.

  • It is important to know when and where to get help with your symptoms.
    1. Call in the emergency health care provider if your symptoms are getting worse or if you have signs of an infection, such as a fever.
    2. You should get emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as difficulty in breathing, catching your breath, or talking.
    3. Always keep your inhaler and medication with you.

Home remedies and Self-care

To help you feel better, you may want to try the following self-care measures:
  1. Avoid contact with lung irritants such as pesticides, toxic gases, certain fumes, dust, etc.
  2.  Don’t smoke. Wear a mask while traveling in polluted air or if you’re exposed to irritants, such as paint or household cleaners with strong fumes.
  3. Use a humidifier. It can improve airflow by loosening mucus and give relief from wheezing. (Humidifier and vaporizers give warm, moist air these vapors help relieve coughs and loosens mucus in your airways. Medicines are added sometimes to the vaporizers for instant relief from cough. Clean the humidifiers to avoid the growth of bacteria and fungi in the water container.

Exercises and other strategies

For treating bronchitis include the following:

  1. Exercising to strengthen the chest muscles to help breathing.
  2. Improving breathing techniques through pulmonary rehabilitation.
  3. Doing breathing exercises, such as pursed-lip breathing, can help slow down breathing so that you can breathe deeply, and make it more effective.
  4. If cold air aggravates your cough and causes shortness of breath, put on a cold-air face mask before you go outside.
Should people exercise when they have bronchitis?
  1. For acute bronchitis gives fatigue it is best to rest it out.
  2. As for chronic bronchitis, it is useful to maintain daily exercise habits,

That includes breathing exercises and light cardiac and muscle strengthening exercises moreover you should consult your doctor before taking on any exclusive fitness regime.

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