Acarbose is used as an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that slows the action of specific digestive enzymes that metabolize food into sugars. This slows down carbohydrates digestion and keeps your blood sugar from rising high after you eat.
What is Acarbose?
Acarbose is an approved medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults as an adjunct to diet and exercise, depending on the patient’s health condition.
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Common Brand Names of Acarbose:
What are the Uses of Acarbose?
Acarbose is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is generally used as a combination therapy with other medicines, diet, and exercise. Usually administered by mouth in an oral dosage form of a tablet. Your doctor or physician may start treatment with an initial dose of 25 mg gradually increasing the dose to maintain the effectiveness of medicine ( Maintainance dose is up to 50 -100mg ) maximum dose of Acarbose is 100mg.
Administration of Acarbose:
Acarbose should be administered orally three times daily with the first bite of each meal.
Dose: The amount of medicine that should be taken depends on.
- Patient’s weight
- Age Factor
- Allergic reaction
- Health conditions
- Other prescribed medicines. And many more.
Acarbose Dosage form & How to Take?
Dosage forms are type or variety in which medicine can be provided to patients considering the best possible treatment.
Dosage forms can be Tablet, Pill or capsule, suspension or syrup, aerosol or inhaler, liquid injection, pure powder, or solid crystal.
Acarbose is majorly used in the form of tablets. This is the usual dosage recommended in most common treatment cases. Please remember that every patient and their case is different, so the dosage can be different based on the disease, route of administration, patient’s age, and medical history.
Mechanism of action:
Acarbose acts as a competitive, reversible inhibitor of pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolase.
Acarbose by inhibiting this enzyme delays digestion of carbohydrates, Acarbose slows glucose absorption, resulting in a reduction of blood sugar levels from rising very high after you eat.
Acarbose gets absorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It has a low systemic bioavailability which is less than 2%. It gets absorbed as the active drug, with 35% as metabolites).
Acarbose is metabolized in the gastrointestinal (GI) I tract by intestinal bacteria and digestive enzymes.
The excretion of Acarbose is facilitated by kidneys, and 51% of an oral dose gets excreted in feces.
What are the common side effects of Acarbose?
Common side effects may include:
- stomach discomfort.
- stomach gas & bloating.
- mild diarrhea
- mild skin rash or itching.
- Acarbose may decrease the bioavailability of digoxin and valproic acid.
- Acarbose may increase hypoglycemic risk when combined with other anti-diabetic agents that cause hypoglycemia.
- Other Digestive enzymes, including amylase, lipase, and protease, may decrease the effectiveness of acarbose.
- Therapy requires monitoring with other agents that affect blood glucose concentrations.
Acarbose use is contraindicated in patients with:
- Known hypersensitivity.
- diabetic ketoacidosis.
- liver cirrhosis.
- inflammatory bowel disease.
- colonic ulceration.
- It also is contraindicated in patients with or at risk of intestinal obstruction.
Overdose with Acarbose may increase GI adverse effects. Patients should not have food or beverages that contain carbohydrates for 4 to 6 hours if toxicity occurs.
Reference: 1.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493214/ 2.https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/444254#section=Therapeutic-Uses